SUCH a good post, thank you!
The US is really two different economies, so it's hard to make general statements about it. Inflation here tends to be hidden in increasing costs of living experienced by the poorer half that aren't officially counted in the main inflation metrics.
Richer folks are buoyed by the government's loyal support of the stock market and big businesses that tend to drive it. They in effect sell their dollars, magically created by the US treasury, at a premium to folks in Argentina, playing into the dynamic you lay out so clearly.
Any economy is a kind of game, and trouble comes when some actors get to write the rules for everyone. The House always wins at the grand American casino.
Unless and until there is an alternative to the dollar. I can't believe America's steady structural collapse won't eventually force a reckoning. In an ideal world currency would be directly tied to energy, but getting there will be... difficult.